Hailed as “The Fountain of Youth” and favored for athletic performance, Human Growth Hormone (HGH) is fast becoming the core of hormone replacement therapy.
Under proper medical supervision, HGH hormone replacement therapy promotes a multitude of health benefits including restoration of muscle strength, skin and hair texture, increased sex drive, energy levels and improved memory without negative side effects.
Clinical studies have demonstrated that HGH helps your body burn fat and increases blood flow to vital organs to make you feel younger, stronger and sexier.
On this site, you will find answers to the most frequently asked questions about HGH, HGH medical references, HGH articles, and the benefits, risks and application of HGH in hormone replacement therapy.
Call MetroMD at (323) 285-5300 now to schedule your consultation with Dr. Martin and see if HGH Therapy is right for you.
Current pricing effective March 1, 2013
We’re growing and MetroMD continues to be the most-referred HGH Therapy provider in the Los Angeles area. New volume discounts enable us to pass generous savings along to you, our valued patients. So you get the very BEST care and the most COST-EFFECTIVE treatment possible.
Norditropin Pens (5mg somatropin) … $900.00 per pen, includes all related office visits and examinations.
B12/testosterone injections … $75.00 each
Lab Work is not included in this pricing but may be covered by your insurance provider.
HGH treatments are typically not covered by insurance.
HGH FAQ’s – Frequently Asked Questions About Human Growth Hormone:
- WHAT IS HGH EXACTLY?
- WHO IS HGH FOR?
- IS HGH SAFE TO USE?
- WHAT ARE THE SIDE EFFECTS OF TOO MUCH HGH?
- WHY CAN’T I TAKE A PILL OR NASAL SPRAY WITH HGH IN IT?
- WHEN WILL I NOTICE SOMETHING FROM HGH?
- IS HGH A “STEROID” AND IS IT LEGAL?
- WHAT HAPPENS IF I STOP SUPPLEMENTING WITH HGH?
- DOES HGH HELP FATIGUE?
- WILL I GROW TALLER WITH HGH?
- WILL MY SEX LIFE IMPROVE WITH HGH?
- WHY IS DIET SO IMPORTANT WITH HGH?
- HOW CAN I LOSE WEIGHT WITH HGH?
- HOW LONG DO I HAVE TO CONTINUE USING HGH?
- ARE THERE ANY BOOKS YOU CAN RECOMMEND TO LEARN MORE ABOUT HGH?
WHAT IS HGH EXACTLY?
HGH (Human Growth Hormone) is a large protein-based peptide hormone, also referred to as Somatotropin. The part of the brain called the pituitary gland naturally secretes the hormone, but production gradually decreases as we age. Since 1996, the hormone has been synthesized in the lab and is now widely available for hormone replacement therapy.
Hormone replacement with HGH decreases our stores of body fat, increases bone density and muscle mass, improves skin tone and texture, reduces background fatigue, improves the effectiveness of our immune system and increases our sexual performance.
It is given by a very small and painless HGH injection, similar to an insulin shot, into the fat lying just below the surface of the skin and usually without bruising or any bleeding. Advanced delivery systems that resemble a common fountain pen with replaceable HGH cartridges and needle tips, offer better portability and convenience.
Click this link to read the detailed article, What Is HGH?, by Dr. Martin.
WHO IS HGH FOR?
A medical indication for the use of HGH therapy (also called HGH supplementation) is a fall in levels within the blood of indicators of decreasing native HGH production. The most common indicator is IGF-1 which rises when HGH increases and falls as Growth Hormone dissipates.
Among children and young adults, the IGF-1 levels may be normal or even elevated, but their actual growth places them in less than the fiftieth percentile on the growth curve. These children will benefit from the addition of HGH and will incur an increase in height, often 1-2 inches in a year.
By age 30, a decrease in HGH can be observed in more than 90 percent of individuals and by age 40, 80 percent of HGH has disappeared from the blood. By age 50, 99 percent of native HGH production has ceased and the aging process begins to accelerate.
For these reasons, adults over 40 and children of abnormally small stature, by definition, may benefit from HGH therapy. In other cases, young adults, ages 20-30, may also benefit from HGH supplementation provided they have indications such as obesity, lipo-dystrophy, muscle atrophy or damage and muscle wasting.
IS HGH SAFE TO USE?
Yes, HGH is safe to use. Does it cause cancer? No, HGH does not cause cancer. The famous 2002 study by Swerdlow, Higgins, Adlard and Preece failed to associate HGH with prostate and colon cancer and was flawed by using subjects who had been given HGH products of questionable purity derived from cadavers. The apparent reason HGH cannot influence cancer cells is that large-sized HGH molecules cannot dock with receptor sites on cancer cells because of the highly abnormal and deformed cancer cells’ lack of functioning receptor sites. Many post-chemo and post-radiation therapy cancer patients now receive HGH therapy to restore muscle mass lost by earlier wasting due to cancer or anorexia.
WHAT ARE THE SIDE EFFECTS OF TOO MUCH HGH?
Almost anything we take into our bodies, when taken in excess, can do us harm. Water, when taken in excess, can create a strange form of diabetes called diabetes insipidus and can dilute our sodium levels to a point that we can have seizures and lose consciousness. So too, HGH, when taken at levels of 100 to 1000 times the recommended daily dose without expert medical supervision, can also create problems. These include pain in the knees and other joints, swollen tendons about the hands and wrist and, finally, increased bone growth, most noticeably about the forehead. These effects were first described in athletes taking very large amounts of HGH in unsupervised programs during the 1990’s. One seldom sees these HGH side effects in today’s population due to enforcement of the requirement for medical supervision in HGH therapy.
WHY CAN’T I TAKE A PILL, CREAM OR NASAL SPRAY WITH HGH IN IT?
HGH is a very large molecule (22,000 Daltons in weight) and it is also a very delicate protein-based molecule which is easily broken apart by stomach acid. For these reasons, HGH cannot be effectively delivered orally or topically. HGH is too large to pass through the membranes of the mouth, nose or the barrier of our skin. It has to be painlessly injected with a tiny needle just under the skin, usually where it presents a flat surface like the skin on top of the thigh, abdominal area or buttocks.
WHEN WILL I NOTICE SOMETHING FROM HGH?
After beginning a course of HGH injections, the hormone begins to work immediately on every cell of the body. But, it can take a some weeks for the changes HGH brings to become apparent. This is because the changes have to be large enough to “cross a threshold” with our senses. So, the first thing most people report is sleeping better and requiring LESS sleep because they have more energy.
Another early finding is that the libido (desire for sexual contact) increases and, often at about week four through six, endurance and physical strength, when measured, show marked increases. By the third month, if a good diet and exercise program are also being followed, a significant loss of fat and increase in muscle mass are readily noticeable not only in the mirror but also when measured electronically.
IS HGH A “STEROID” AND IS IT LEGAL?
No, HGH is NOT a steroid and it is not illegal. Certain sports regulatory agencies and the Olympic Committees do not allow HGH usage among athletes because they hold that HGH usage by athletes creates an unfair advantage in competition through the enhancing of performance. But, this is NOT a health and safety issue and is only a SOCIAL issue. It is illegal to purchase HGH from overseas sources on the Internet or to import HGH across the border without proper medical documentation. HGH sold on the black market is contraband and, because it has often been kept in overheated, non-refrigerated storage areas such as the backs of cars, questions of its purity, effectiveness and safety immediately arise.
WHAT HAPPENS IF I STOP SUPPLEMENTING WITH HGH?
When HGH Therapy is discontinued, the effects of aging resumes at the normal rate and the process of deterioration continues without being accelerated. This occurs because the mitochondria which are the energy sources located deep within each cell are stimulated by HGH to produce more ATP (adenosine triphosphate), the fuel that a cell runs on. When we remove HGH, the mitochondria is no longer stimulated to produce ATP and cells begin to age once again at the usual rate.
DOES HGH HELP FATIGUE?
When individuals of all ages are given HGH, there is a universal expression that fatigue is diminished and energy levels are increased dramatically. This occurs because HGH crosses through the cell membrane of each normal, healthy cell after HGH docks with receptor sites located on the surface of the cell. It is carried by special proteins to the mitochondria located deep within the center of the cell where it “turns on” the energy producing areas to create more energy stored within a molecule called ATP (adenosine triphosphate). ATP is the fuel the cell runs on. When this occurs, we have more energy to use and we feel more alert and ready for activities.
WILL I GROW TALLER WITH HGH?
Over the past decade many children and teenagers have been seen in our pediatric clinic after they were identified as being “too short for their age.” This means that they fell below the fiftieth percentile on the growth curve and were candidates for HGH supplementation. If you have an Xray of the “growth plates” of the long bones and that Xray shows that the “growth plates” are still “open and growing,” when given HGH, you too can count on seeing “growth” stimulated by HGH supplementation. “Growth plates” are usually open in most children and teenagers .
WILL MY SEX LIFE IMPROVE WITH HGH?
In more than fifty percent of adult individuals treated with HGH replacement therapy, the libido (“sex drive”) increases and, along with that, sexual performance is also enhanced. This is often viewed as a positive benefit for seniors and middle-aged individuals who have suffered anguish from diminished libido and performance failures.
WHY IS DIET SO IMPORTANT WITH HGH?
The best evidence for a relationship between the effects of HGH and diet comes from the athletic world in which a comparison between two vastly differing athletes utilizing the same dose of HGH but eating completely different dietary regimes has made an enormous difference.
A comparison between one of Japan’s greatest SUMO wrestlers and a famous international European cyclist, both using the same dose of HGH, is striking in this regard. While the SUMO wrestlers enormous girth and the cyclist’s svelt, sinewy form represent equally two very strong individuals, each athletes fat mass was vastly different while their strength and lean muscle mass remained constant with HGH therapy.
The variable in this case was the diet. While the trim, super-strong cyclist ate only LEAN proteins and complex carbohydrates in the form of fibrous fruits and vegetables, the SUMO wrestler ate supersaturated fatty Kobe beef three times a diet accompanied by large portions of simple carbohydrates in the form of white rice.
The model represented by the SUMO wrestler’s diet is similar to that used by beef-producers for the commercial fattening of cattle in the US and in some other developed countries in which Bovine Growth Hormone, a high-saturated fat diet rich in simple carbohydrates is used to bulk up cattle for market. This is certainly NOT the model we recommend for humans using HGH. By contrast, the diet utilized by the cyclist in the case of the two athletes is highly recommended when utilizing HGH supplementation for maintaining lean muscle mass without excessive weight gain.
HOW CAN I LOSE WEIGHT WITH HGH?
While regular exercise each day and a low carbohydrate, low fat diet are known to be the pillars of rapid and safe weight loss, the addition of Human Growth Hormone increases the metabolic rate and so permits greater endurance during exercise, shorter periods for recovery, less fatigue and, most important of all, rapid “burning” of mid-rift and hip fat-stores. With HGH, achieving significant weight loss occurs far more rapidly than a program of simple diet and exercise modification.
HOW LONG DO I HAVE TO CONTINUE USING HGH?
While many seniors experience such life-changing effects from HGH that they elect to continue indefinitely on hormone replacement therapy, younger people (from 35 to 60) also elect to continue with HGH therapy indefinitely. When questioned about this, middle-aged individuals cite the fact that their bodies feel and appear 10 to 20 years younger, that they feel more attractive and that their performance is not unlike that of a 25-30 year old. For these reasons, we find that the vast majority of our patients elect to continue HGH replacement therapy indefinitely.
ARE THERE ANY BOOKS YOU CAN RECOMMEND TO LEARN MORE ABOUT HGH?
Yes, Grow Young With HGH by Dr. Ronald Klatz is an excellent resource for learning more about the clinical research of HGH, finding an HGH doctor, and other things you can do to boost your natural hormone production.
Just click on the book titles to learn more.
For more information now, call MetroMD at (323) 285-5300 to schedule a consultation with Dr. Martin and see if Human Growth Hormone Replacement Therapy is right for you.
Human Growth Hormone Bibliography and Scientific References:
1 Bengtsson A, Henriksson KG, Jorfeldt L, K~agedal B, Lennmarken C, Lindstrom F: Primary fibromyalgia. A clinical and laboratory study of 55 patients. Scand.J.Rheumatol. 1986, 15:340-347.
2 Wolfe F, Smythe HA, Yunus MB, Bennett RM, Bombardier C, Goldenberg DL, Tugwell P, Campbell SM, Abeles M, Clark P, Fam AG, Farber SJ, Fiechtner JJ, Franklin CM, Gatter RA, Hamaty D, Lessard J, Lichtbroun AS, Masi AT, McCain GA, Reynolds WJ, Romano TJ, Russell IJ, Sheon RP: The American College of Rheumatology 1990 criteria for the classification of fibromyalgia: Report of the Multicenter Criteria Committee. Arth.Rheum. 1990, 33:160-172.
3 Yunus MB, Masi AT: Juvenile primary fibromyalgia syndrome. A clinical study of thirty-three patients and matched normal controls. Arth.Rheum. 1985, 28:138-145.
4 Yunus MB, Holt GS, Masi AT, Aldag JC: Fibromyalgia syndrome among the elderly. Comparison with younger patients. J.Am.Geriatr.Soc. 1988, 36:987-995.
5 Waxman J, Zatzkis SM: Fibromyalgia and menopause. Examination of the relationship. Postgrad.Med. 1986, 80:165-7, 170-1.
6 · Crofford LJ: Neuroendocrine abnormalities in fibromyalgia and related disorders. Am.J.Med.Sci. 1998, 315:359-366.
A useful review of the HPA axis perturbations and hypotheses regarding the associations with pain.
7 Neeck G: From the fibromyalgia challenge toward a new bio-psycho-social model of rheumatic diseases. Z.Rheumatol. 1998, 57 Suppl 2:A13-A16.
8 Weigent DA, Bradley LA, Blalock JE, Alarcon GS: Current concepts in the pathophysiology of abnormal pain perception in fibromyalgia. Am.J.Med.Sci. 1998, 315:405-412.
9 Veldhuis JD, Iranmanesh A: Physiological regulation of the human growth hormone (GH)-insulin-like growth factor type I (IGF-I) axis: predominant impact of age, obesity, gonadal function, and sleep. Sleep 1996, 19:S221-S224.
10 · Muller EE, Locatelli V, Cocchi D: Neuroendocrine control of growth hormone secretion. Physiol Rev. 1999, 79:511-607.
An uptodate review of the neuro-physiology of GH secretion.
11 Hindmarsh PC, Brain CE, Robinson IC, Matthews DR, Brook CG: The interaction of growth hormone releasing hormone and somatostatin in the generation of a GH pulse in man. Clin.Endocrinol.(Oxf) 1991, 35:353-360.
12 Reid GJ: Textbook of Endocrinology, edn 8. Edited by Wilson JD, Foster MD. Philadelphia: W.B. Sanders; 1992.
13 Veldhuis JD, Iranmanesh A, Weltman A: Elements in the pathophysiology of diminished growth hormone (GH) secretion in aging humans. Endocrine. 1997, 7:41-48.
14 Holl RW, Hartman ML, Veldhuis JD, Taylor WM, Thorner MO: Thirty-second sampling of plasma growth hormone in man: Correlation with sleep stages. J.Clin.Endocrinol.Metab. 1991, 72:854-861.
15 Davidson JR, Moldofsky H, Lue FA: Growth hormone and cortisol secretion in relation to sleep and wakefulness. J Psychiatr Neurosci 1991, 16:96-102.
16 Florini JR, Prinz PN, Vitiello MV, Hintz RL: Somatomedin-C levels in healthy young and old men: relationship to peak and 24-hour integrated levels of growth hormone. J Gerontol 1985, 40:2-7.
17 Wallymahmed ME, Foy P, Shaw D, Hutcheon R, Edwards RH, MacFarlane IA: Quality of life, body composition and muscle strength in adult growth hormone deficiency: the influence of growth hormone replacement therapy for up to 3 years. Clin Endocrinol.(Oxf.) 1997, 47:439-446.
18 Verhelst J, Abs R, Vandeweghe M, Mockel J, Legros JJ, Copinschi G, Mahler C, Velkeniers B, Vanhaelst L, Van Aelst A, De Rijdt D, Stevenaert A, Beckers A: Two years of replacement therapy in adults with growth hormone deficiency. Clin Endocrinol.(Oxf.) 1997, 47:485-494.
19 Lieberman SA, Hoffman AR: The somatopause: should growth hormone deficiency in older people be treated? Clin Geriatr.Med. 1997, 13:671-684.
20 Cuneo RC, Salomon F, McGauley GA, Sönksen PH: The growth hormone deficiency syndrome in adults. Clin Endocrinol 1992, 37:387-397.
21 Wallymahmed ME, Baker GA, Humphris G, Dewey M, MacFarlane IA: The development, reliability and validity of a disease specific quality of life model for adults with growth hormone deficiency. Clin.Endocrinol.(Oxf). 1996, 44:403-411.
22 Johannsson G, Grimby G, Sunnerhagen KS, Bengtsson BA: Two years of growth hormone (GH) treatment increase isometric and isokinetic muscle strength in GH-deficient adults [see comments]. J Clin Endocrinol.Metab. 1997, 82:2877-2884.
23 Rutherford OM, Beshyah SA, Schott J, Watkins Y, Johnston DG: Contractile properties of the quadriceps muscle in growth hormone-deficient hypopituitary adults. Clin.Sci.(Colch). 1995, 88:67-71.
24 McGauley GA, Cuneo RC, Salomon F, Sönksen PH: Psychological well-being before and after growth hormone treatment in adults with growth hormone deficiency. Horm.Res. 1990, 33 Suppl 4:52-54.
25 Salomon F, Cuneo RC, Hesp R, Sonksen PH: The effects of treatment with recombinant human growth hormone XX on body composition and metabolism in adults with growth hormone deficiency. N Engl J Med 1989, 321:1797-1803.
26 Florini JR: Hormonal control of muscle growth. Muscle Nerve 1987, 10:577-598.
27 Armstrong RB, Warren GL, Warren JA: Mechanisms of exercise-induced muscle fibre injury. Sports Med. 1991, 12:184-207.
28 Bennett RM: The contribution of muscle to the generation of fibromyalgia symptomatology. J Musculoskeletal Pain 1996, 4:35-59.
29 Christ ER, Carroll PV, Russell-Jones DL, Sonksen PH: The consequences of growth hormone deficiency in adulthood, and the effects of growth hormone replacement. Schweiz.Med.Wochenschr. 1997, 127:1440-1449.
30 Cuneo RC, Judd S, Wallace JD, Perry-Keene D, Burger H, Lim-Tio S, Strauss B, Stockigt J, Topliss D, Alford F, Hew L, Bode H, Conway A, Handelsman D, Dunn S, Boyages S, Cheung NW, Hurley D: The Australian Multicenter Trial of Growth Hormone (GH) Treatment in GH- Deficient Adults. J Clin Endocrinol.Metab. 1998, 83:107-116.
31 Giusti M, Meineri I, Malagamba D, Cuttica CM, Fattacciu G, Menichini U, Rasore E, Giordano G: Impact of recombinant human growth hormone treatment on psychological profiles in hypopituitary patients with adult-onset growth hormone deficiency. Eur.J Clin Invest. 1998, 28:13-19.
32 Almqvist O, Thoren M, Saaf M, Eriksson O: Effects of growth hormone substitution on mental performance in adults with growth hormone deficiency: a pilot study. Psychoneuroendocrinology 1986, 11:347-352.
33 Shahi M, Beshyah SA, Hackett D, Sharp P, Johnston DG, Foale R: Cardiac function and structure in growth hormone deficiency. Br.Heart J. 1991, 66:58-63.
34 Cuneo RC, Salomon F, Wiles CM, Hesp R, Sönksen PH: Growth hormone treatment in growth hormone-deficient adults. I. Effects on muscle mass and strength. J Appl.Physiol. 1991, 70:688-694.
35 Aimaretti G, Corneli G, Razzore P, Bellone S, Baffoni C, Bellone J, Camanni F, Ghigo E: Usefulness of IGF-I assay for the diagnosis of GH deficiency in adults. J.Endocrinol.Invest 1998, 21:506-511.
36 Hoeck HC, Vestergaard P, Jakobsen PE, Falhof J, Laurberg P: Diagnosis of growth hormone (GH) deficiency in adults with hypothalamic-pituitary disorders: comparison of test results using pyridostigmine plus GH-releasing hormone (GHRH), clonidine plus GHRH, and insulin-induced hypoglycemia as GH secretagogues. J.Clin.Endocrinol.Metab 2000, 85:1467-1472.
37 Moldofsky H, Scarisbrick P, England R, Smythe H: Musculosketal symptoms and non-REM sleep disturbance in patients with “fibrositis syndrome” and healthy subjects. Psychosom Med 1975, 37:341-351.
38 Bennett RM: Beyond fibromyalgia: ideas on etiology and treatment. J.Rheumatol.Suppl. 1989, 19:185-191.
39 Bennett RM, Clark SR, Campbell SM, Burckhardt CS: Low levels of somatomedin C in patients with the fibromyalgia syndrome. A possible link between sleep and muscle pain. Arthritis Rheum. 1992, 35:1113-1116.
40 Bennett RM, Cook DM, Clark SR, Burckhardt CS, Campbell SM: Hypothalamic-pituitary-insulin-like growth factor-I axis dysfunction in patients with fibromyalgia. J.Rheumatol. 1997, 24:1384-1389.
A study of 500 fibromyalgia patients with IGF-1 levels and GH stimulation tests, demonstrating adult GH deficiency in about one third of patients.
41 Dinser R, Halama T, Hoffmann A: Stringent endocrinological testing reveals subnormal growth hormone secretion in some patients with fibromyalgia syndrome but rarely severe growth hormone deficiency . J Rheumatol 2000, 27:2482-2488.
42 Leal-Cerro A, Povedano J, Astorga R, Gonzalez M, Silva H, Garcia-Pesquera F, Casanueva FF, Dieguez C: The growth hormone (GH)-releasing hormone-GH-insulin-like growth factor-1 axis in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome. J Clin.Endocrinol.Metab 1999, 84:3378-3381.
43 Riedel W, Layka H, Neeck G: Secretory pattern of GH, TSH, thyroid hormones, ACTH, cortisol, FSH, and LH in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome following systemic injection of the relevant hypothalamic-releasing hormones. Z.Rheumatol. 1998, 57 Suppl 2:81-87.
44 Hallegua D.S., Wallace DJ, Silverman S, Bonert V, Mathur R, Klinenberg JR: Prevalence of fibromyalgia in Xgrowth hormone deficiency adults. J Musculoskeletal Pain 2001, 9:35-42.
45 Bennett RM, Clark SR, Walczyk J: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of growth hormone in the treatment of fibromyalgia. Am.J Med 1998, 104:227-231.
The only controlled study of supplemental GH therapy in fibromyalgia to date. Found a benefit after about 6 months of therapy with a relapse on discontinuing therapy.
46 Moorkens G, Wynants H, Abs R: Effect of growth hormone treatment in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome: a preliminary study. Growth Horm.IGF.Res. 1998, 8 Suppl B:131-133.
47 Chan JM, Stampfer MJ, Giovannucci E, Gann PH, Ma J, Wilkinson P, Hennekens CH, Pollak M: Plasma insulin-like growth factor-I and prostate cancer risk: a prospective study. Science 1998, 279:563-566.
48 Mantzoros CS, Tzonou A, Signorello LB, Stampfer M, Trichopoulos D, Adami HO: Insulin-like growth factor 1 in relation to prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia. Br.J Cancer 1997, 76:1115-1118.
49 Yee D: The insulin-like growth factors and breast cancer–revisited. Breast Cancer Res.Treat. 1998, 47:197-199.
50 Stoll BA: Breast cancer: further metabolic-endocrine risk markers? Br.J Cancer 1997, 76:1652-1654.
51 · Sanmarti A, Lucas A, Hawkins F, Webb SM, Ulied A: Observational study in adult hypopituitary patients with untreated growth hormone deficiency (ODA study). Socio-economic impact and health status. Collaborative ODA (Observational GH Deficiency in Adults) Group. Eur.J Endocrinol. 1999, 141:481-489.
A study documenting more cardiovascular risk factors, higher mortality, worse quality of life and higher absolute health costs than the general population in Spain.
52 Bengtsson BA: The consequences of growth hormone deficiency in adults. Acta Endocrinol. 1993, 128:2-5.
53 · Paiva, E.S., Deodhar, A., Jones, K.D., Bennett, R.M., Impaired growth hormone secretion in fibromyalgia patients: evidence for augmented hypothalamic somatostatin tone. Arthritis Rheum. 46(5): 1344-1350, 2002
54 Valcavi R, Valente F, Dieguez C, Zini M, Procopio M, Portioli I, Ghigo E: Evidence against deletion of the growth hormone (GH)-releasable pool in human primary hypothyroidism: studies with GH-releasing hormone, pyridostigmine, and arginine. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1993, 77:616-620.
55 Neeck G, Crofford LJ: Neuroendocrine perturbations in fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome Rheum.Dis.Clin.North Am. 2000, 26:989-1002.
A comprehensive review of neuroendocrine disorders in fibromyalgia.
56 Crofford LJ, Engleberg NC, Demitrack MA: Neurohormonal perturbations in fibromyalgia. Baillieres.Clin.Rheumatol. 1996, 10:365-378.
57 Thorner O: The anterior pituitary. In Textbook of endocrinology, edn 8th. Edited by Wilson JD, Foster DW. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders; 1992:221-310.
58 Devesa J, Lima L, Tresguerres JAF: Neuroendocrine control of growth hormone secretion in humans. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 1992, 3:173-181.
59 Neeck G, Riedel W: Hormonal pertubations in fibromyalgia syndrome . Ann.N.Y.Acad.Sci. 1999, 876:325-38; discussion 339:325-338.
60 Katakami H, Arimura A, Frohman LA: Involvement of hypothalamic somatostatin in the suppression of growth hormone secretion by central corticotropin-releasing factor in conscious male rats. Neuroendocrinology 1985, 41:390-393.
61 Rivier C, Vale W: Involvement of corticotropin-releasing factor and somatostatin in stress-induced inhibition of growth hormone secretion in the rat. Endocrinology 1985, 117:2478-2482.
62 Hauger R.L. DFM: Regulation of the stress response by corticotropin-releasing factor receptors. In Neuroendocrinology in physiology and medicine. Edited by Conn PMFME. Totowa N.J.: Humana Press, 2000; 2000:261-286.
63 Bonaz B, Rivest S: Effect of a chronic stress on CRF neuronal activity and expression of its type 1 receptor in the rat brain. Am.J.Physiol 1998, 275:R1438-R1449.
64 Heim C, Ehlert U, Hanker JP, Hellhammer DH: Abuse-related posttraumatic stress disorder and alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in women with chronic pelvic pain. Psychosom.Med. 1998, 60:309-318.
65 Demitrack MA, Dale JK, Straus SE, Laue L, Listwak SJ, Kruesi MJP, Chrousos GP, Gold PW: Evidence for impaired activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1991, 73:1224-1234.
66 Heim C, Ehlert U, Hanker JP, Hellhammer DH: Psychological and endocrine correlates of chronic pelvic pain associated with adhesions. J.Psychosom.Obstet.Gynaecol. 1999, 20:11-20.
67 Wittert GA, Livesey JH, Espiner EA, Donald RA: Adaptation of the hypothalamopituitary adrenal axis to chronic exercise stress in humans. Med.Sci.Sports Exerc. 1996, 28:1015-1019.
68 · Clauw DJ, Chrousos GP: Chronic pain and fatigue syndromes: overlapping clinical and neuroendocrine features and potential pathogenic mechanisms. Neuroimmunomodulation. 1997, 4:134-153.
Hypothesizes that fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome may be a result of genetic and environmental factors that interact to cause the development of named syndromes. Various components of the central nervous system are envisaged to be involved, including the hypothalamic pituitary axes, pain-processing pathways, and autonomic nervous system.
69 Dessein PH, Shipton EA, Stanwix AE, Joffe BI: Neuroendocrine deficiency-mediated development and persistence of pain in fibromyalgia: a promising paradigm? . Pain 2000, 86:213-215.
70 Neeck G, Riedel W: Thyroid function in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome. J Rheumatol. 1992, 19:1120-1122.
71 Winfield JB: Pain in fibromyalgia. Rheum.Dis.Clin.North Am. 1999, 25:55-79.
72 Dorn LD, Chrousos GP: The neurobiology of stress: understanding regulation of affect during female biological transitions. Semin.Reprod.Endocrinol. 1997, 15:19-35.
For more information, call MetroMD at (323) 285-5300 to schedule a consultation with Dr. Martin and see if Hormone Replacement Therapy with HGH is right for you.